Highlights of Ophthalmology

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 44 , ISSUE 6ENG ( Dec-2016, 2016 ) > List of Articles

Basis of Pterygium Development

Eduardo Cardenas-Cantu, Judith Zavala, Jorge Valenzuela, Jorge E. Valdez-Garcýa

Citation Information : Cardenas-Cantu E, Zavala J, Valenzuela J, Valdez-Garcýa JE. Basis of Pterygium Development. 2016; 44 (6ENG):2-20.

DOI: 10.5005/highlights-44-6-2

Published Online: 29-01-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2016; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


PDF Share
  1. Dushku N, John MK, Schultz GS, Reid TW. Pterygia pathogenesis: corneal invasion by matrix metalloproteinase expressing altered limbal epithelial basal cells. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119(5):695-706.
  2. Aspiotis M, Tsanou E, Gorezis S, et al. Angiogenesis in pterygium: study of microvessel density, vascular endothelial growth factor, and thrombospondin-1. Eye (Lond) 2007;21(8):1095-1101.
  3. Kase S, Osaki M, Jin XH, et al. Increased expression of erythropoietin receptor in human pterygial tissues. Int J Mol Med 2007;20(5):699-702.
  4. Tsai YY, Chiang CC, Yeh KT, et al. Effect of TIMP-1 and MMP in pterygium invasion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010; 51(7):3462-3467.
  5. Liang K, Jiang Z, Ding BQ, et al. Expression of cell proliferation and apoptosis biomarkers in pterygia and normal conjunctiva. Mol Vis 2011;17:1687-1693.
  6. Ahmed E. A Textbook of Ophthalmology, 2nd ed.; New Delhi: Prentice-Hall, 2001.
  7. Khurana AK. Ophthalmology. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers, 2003.
  8. Coroneo MT. Pterygium as an early indicator of ultraviolet insolation: a hypothesis. Br J Ophthalmol 1993; 77(11):734-739.
  9. Hilgers JH. Pterygium: its incidence, heredity and etiology. Am J Ophthalmol 1960;50:635-644.
  10. Mackenzie FD, Hirst LW, Battistutta D, Green A. Risk analysis in the development of pterygia. Ophthalmology 1992;99(7):1056-1061.
  11. Chalkia AK, Spandidos DA, Detorakis ET. Viral involvement in the pathogenesis and clinical features of ophthalmic pterygium (review). Int J Mol Med 2013;32(3):539- 543.
  12. Riau AK, Wong TT, Lan W, et al. Aberrant DNA methylation of matrix remodeling and cell adhesion related genes in pterygium. PLoS One 2011;6(2):e14687.
  13. Chen PL, Cheng YW, Chiang CC, et al. Hypermethylation of the p16 gene promoter in pterygia and its association with the expression of DNA methyltransferase 3b. Mol Vis 2006;12:1411-1416.
  14. Young CH, Chiu YT, Shih TS, et al. E-cadherin promoter hypermethylation may contribute to protein inactivation in pterygia. Mol Vis 2010;16:1047-1053.
  15. Ando R, Kase S, Ohashi T, et al. Tissue factor expression in human pterygium. Mol Vis 2011;17:63-69.
  16. Kato N, Shimmura S, Kawakita T, et al. Beta-catenin activation and epithelialmesenchymal transition in the pathogenesis of pterygium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007; 48(4):1511-1517.
  17. Beden U, Irkec M, Orhan D, Orhan M. The roles of Tlymphocyte subpopulations (CD4 and CD8), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), HLA-DR receptor, and mast cells in etiopathogenesis of pterygium. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2003;11(2):115- 122.
  18. Ioachim-Velogianni E, Tsironi E, Agnantis N, et al. HLADR antigen expression in pterygium epithelial cells and lymphocyte subpopulations: an immunohistochemistry study. Ger J Ophthalmol 1995;4(2):123-129.
  19. Ribatti D, Nico B, Maxia C, et al. Neovascularization and mast cells with tryptase activity increase simultaneously in human pterygium. J Cell Mol Med 2007;11(3):585-589.
  20. Tekelioglu Y, Turk A, Avunduk AM, Yulug E. Flow cytometrical analysis of adhesion molecules, T-lymphocyte subpopulations and inflammatory markers in pterygium. Ophthalmologica 2006;220(6):372-378.
  21. Maxia C, Perra MT, Demurtas P, et al. Expression of survivin protein in pterygium and relationship with oxidative DNA damage. J Cell Mol Med 2008; 12(6a):2372- 2380.
  22. Tan DT, Tang WY, Liu YP, et al. Apoptosis and apoptosis related gene expression in normal conjunctiva and pterygium. Br J Ophthalmol 2000;84(2):212-216.
  23. Weinstein O, Rosenthal G, Zirkin H, et al. Overexpression of p53 tumor suppressor gene in pterygia. Eye (Lond) 2002; 16(5):619-621.
  24. Tan DT, Lim AS, Goh HS, Smith DR. Abnormal expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in the conjunctiva of patients with pterygium. Am J Ophthalmol 1997; 123(3):404-405.
  25. Naib-Majani W, Breipohl W, Shazli EE, et al. The Ets-1 transcription factor is involved in pterygial angiogenesis. Anat Histol Embryol 2007;36(2):107-110.
  26. Lee DH, Cho HJ, Kim JT, et al. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase in pterygia. Cornea 2001;20(7):738-742.
  27. Ling S, Liang L, Lin H, et al. Increasing lymphatic microvessel density in primary pterygia. Arch Ophthalmol 2012;130(6):735-742.
  28. Qi CX, Zhang XD, Yuan J, et al. Relationship between angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in recurrent pterygium. Int J Ophthalmol 2012;5(6):655-660.
  29. Naib-Majani W, Eltohami I, Wernert N, et al. Distribution of extracellular matrix proteins in pterygia: an immunohistochemical study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2004; 242(4):332-338.
  30. Di Girolamo N, Chui J, Coroneo MT, Wakefield D. Pathogenesis of pterygia: role of cytokines, growth factors, and matrix metalloproteinases. Prog Retin Eye Res 2004; 23(2):195-228.
  31. Chiang CC, Cheng YW, Lin CL, et al. Cyclooxygenase 2 expression in pterygium. Mol Vis 2007;13:635-638.
  32. Schneider BG, Sahni D, Torres JC, et al. MLH1 and MSH2 expression in pterygia. Cornea 2007;26(4):468-472.
  33. Di Girolamo N, Kumar RK, Coroneo MT, Wakefield D. UVB-mediated induction of interleukin-6 and -8 in pterygia and cultured human pterygium epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002;43(11):3430-3437.
  34. Lee JK, Song YS, Ha HS, et al. Endothelial progenitor cells in pterygium pathogenesis. Eye (Lond) 2007; 21(9):1186-1193.
  35. Ye J, Song YS, Kang SH, et al. Involvement of bone marrow-derived stem and progenitor cells in the pathogenesis of pterygium. Eye (Lond) 2004;18(8):839-843.
  36. Song YS, Ryu YH, Choi SR, Kim JC. The involvement of adult stem cells originated from bone marrow in the pathogenesis of pterygia. Yonsei Med J 2005;46(5):687-692.
  37. Peiretti E, Dessi S, Putzolu M, Fossarello M. Hyperexpression of low-density lipoprotein receptors and hydroxy-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A-reductase in human pinguecula and primary pterygium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004;45(11):3982- 3985.
  38. Peiretti E, Dessi S, Mulas MF, et al. Fibroblasts isolated from human pterygia exhibit altered lipid metabolism characteristics. Exp Eye Res 2006;83(3):536-542.
  39. Peiretti E, Dessi S, Mulas C, et al. Modulation of cholesterol homeostasis by antiproliferative drugs in human pterygium fibroblasts. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007; 48(8):3450-3458.
  40. Mohammed I. Treatment of pterygium. Ann Afr Med 2011; 10(3):197-203.
  41. Cameron ME. Pterygium throughout the World; Springfield, Illinois: Thomas. 1965.
  42. Marchetti C, Sidahmed-Adrar N, Collin F, et al. Melatonin protects PLPC liposomes and LDL towards radicalinduced oxidation. J Pineal Res 2011;51(3):286-296.
  43. Kau HC, Tsai CC, Lee CF, et al. Increased oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, in human pterygium. Eye (Lond) 2006;20(7):826-831.
  44. Balci M, Sahin S, Mutlu FM, et al. Investigation of oxidative stress in pterygium tissue. Mol Vis 2011;17:443-447.
  45. Young S, Sands J. Sun and the eye: prevention and detection of light-induced disease. Clin Dermatol 1998; 16(4):477-485.
  46. Threlfall TJ, English DR. Sun exposure and pterygium of the eye: a dose-response curve. Am J Ophthalmol 1999; 128(3):280-287.
  47. Tsai YY, Cheng YW, Lee H, et al. Oxidative DNA damage in pterygium. Mol Vis 2005;11:71-75.
  48. Ock CY, Kim EH, Choi DJ, et al. 8- Hydroxydeoxyguanosine: not mere biomarker for oxidative stress, but remedy for oxidative stress-implicated gastrointestinal diseases. World J Gastroenterol 2012; 18(4):302-308.
  49. Kau HC, Tsai CC, Hsu WM, et al. Genetic polymorphism of hOGG1 and risk of pterygium in Chinese. Eye (Lond) 2004;18(6):635-639.
  50. Chen PL, Yeh KT, Tsai YY, et al. XRCC1, but not APE1 and hOGG1 gene polymorphisms is a risk factor for pterygium. Mol Vis 2010;16:991-996.
  51. Tanito M, Haniu H, Elliott MH, et al. Identification of 4-hydroxynonenal-modified retinal proteins induced by photooxidative stress prior to retinal degeneration. Free Radic Biol Med 2006;41(12):1847-1859.
  52. Sano I, Kaidzu S, Tanito M, et al. 4-Hydroxyhexenal- and 4-hydroxynonenalmodified proteins in pterygia. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2013;2013:602029.
  53. Uchida K, Stadtman ER. Modification of histidine residues in proteins by reaction with 4-hydroxynonenal. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89(10):4544-4548.
  54. Bautista-de Lucio VM, Lopez-Espinosa NL, Robles Contreras A, et al. Overexpression of peroxiredoxin 2 in pterygium: a proteomic approach. Exp Eye Res 2013;110: 70-75.
  55. Klebe S, Callahan T, Power JH. Peroxiredoxin I and II in human eyes: cellular distribution and association with pterygium and DNA damage. J Histochem Cytochem 2014; 62(1):85-96.
  56. Sebastia R, Ventura MP, Solari HP, et al. Immunohistochemical detection of Hsp90 and Ki-67 in pterygium. Diagn Pathol 2013;8:1-7. doi:10.1186/1746-1596- 8-32.
  57. Bohonowych JE, Gopal U, Isaacs JS. Hsp90 as a gatekeeper of tumor angiogenesis: clinical promise and potential pitfalls. J Oncol 2010;2010:412985.
  58. Cimpean AM, Sava MP, Raica M. DNA damage in human pterygium: one-shot multiple targets. Mol Vis 2013;19: 348-356.
  59. Chui J, Coroneo MT, Tat LT, et al. Ophthalmic pterygium: a stem cell disorder with premalignant features. Am J Pathol 2011;178(2):817-827.
  60. Beukers R, Eker AP, Lohman PH. 50 years thymine dimer. DNA Repair (Amst) 2008;7(3):530-543.
  61. Mesa R, Bassnett S. UV-B-induced DNA damage and repair in the mouse lens. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013; 54(10):6789-6797.
  62. Pfeifer GP. Formation and processing of UV photoproducts: effects of DNA sequence and chromatin environment. Photochem Photobiol 1997;65(2):270-283. 63. Brash DE, Rudolph JA, Simon JA, et al. A role for sunlight in skin cancer: UV-induced p53 mutations in squamous cell carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991; 88(22):10124-10128.
  63. Besaratinia A, Yoon JI, Schroeder C, et al. Wavelength dependence of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage as determined by laser irradiation suggests that cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers are the principal DNA lesions produced by terrestrial sunlight. Faseb J 2011; 25(9):3079-3091.
  64. Mallet JD, Rochette PJ. Ultraviolet light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in rabbit eyes. Photochem Photobiol 2011;87(6):1363-1368.
  65. Bryan DS, Ransom M, Adane B, et al. High resolution mapping of modified DNA nucleobases using excision repair enzymes. Genome Res 2014;9:1534-1542.
  66. Kienzler A, Tronchere X, Devaux A, Bony S. UV-induced Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) and Photoreactivation Repair (PER) in two trout fish cell lines used in ecotoxicological assessment studies. J Photochem Photobiol B 2013;125: 51-55.
  67. Yam JS, Kwok AH. Ultraviolet light and ocular diseases. International Ophthalmology 2014;34(2):383-400.
  68. Taylor HR. Ultraviolet radiation and the eye: an epidemiologic study. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1989;87: 802-853.
  69. Chao SC, Hu DN, Yang PY, et al. Ultraviolet-A irradiation upregulated urokinase-type plasminogen activator in pterygium fibroblasts through ERK and JNK pathways. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013;54(2):999-1007.
  70. Dass K, Ahmad A, Azmi AS, et al. Evolving role of uPA/uPAR system in human cancers. Cancer Treat Rev 2008; 34(2):122-136.
  71. de Vries TJ, Quax PH, Denijn M, et al. Plasminogen activators, their inhibitors, and urokinase receptor emerge in late stages of melanocytic tumor progression. Am J Pathol 1994;144(1):70-81.
  72. Fini ME, Girard MT. Non-coordinate regulation of metalloproteinase gene expression in cornea. Matrix Suppl 1992; 1:203-204.
  73. Li DQ, Lee SB, Gunja-Smith Z, et al. Overexpression of collagenase (MMP-1) and stromelysin (MMP-3) by pterygium head fibroblasts. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119(1):71-80.
  74. Di Girolamo N, McCluskey P, Lloyd A, et al. Expression of MMPs and TIMPs in human pterygia and cultured pterygium epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000; 41(3):671-679.
  75. Detorakis ET, Drakonaki EE, Spandidos DA. Molecular genetic alterations and viral presence in ophthalmic pterygium. Int J Mol Med 2000;6(1):35-41.
  76. zur Hausen H. Papillomaviruses and cancer: from basic studies to clinical application. Nat Rev Cancer 2002; 2(5):342-350.
  77. Tsai YY, Chang CC, Chiang CC, et al. HPV infection and p53 inactivation in pterygium. Mol Vis 2009;15:1092-1097.
  78. Burk RD, Chen Z, Van Doorslaer K. Human papillomaviruses: genetic basis of carcinogenicity. Public Health Genomics 2009;12(5-6):281-290.
  79. Reid TW, Dushku N. Does human papillomavirus cause pterygium? Br J Ophthalmol 2003;87(7):806-808.
  80. Di Girolamo N. Association of human papilloma virus with pterygia and ocularsurface squamous neoplasia. Eye (Lond) 2012;26(2):202-211.
  81. Otlu B, Emre S, Turkcuoglu P, et al. Investigation of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus DNAs in pterygium tissue. Eur J Ophthalmol 2009;19(2):175- 179.
  82. Takamura Y, Kubo E, Tsuzuki S, Akagi Y. Detection of human papillomavirus in pterygium and conjunctival papilloma by hybrid capture II and PCR assays. Eye (Lond) 2008;22(11):1442-1445.
  83. Piras F, Moore PS, Ugalde J, et al. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in pterygia from different geographical regions. Br J Ophthalmol 2003;87(7):864-866.
  84. Rodrigues FW, Arruda JT, Silva RE, Moura KK. TP53 gene expression, codon 72 polymorphism and human papillomavirus DNA associated with pterygium. Genet Mol Res 2008;7(4):1251-1258.
  85. Gallagher MJ, Giannoudis A, Herrington CS, Hiscott P. Human papillomavirus in pterygium. Br J Ophthalmol 2001; 85(7):782-784.
  86. Chong PP, Tung CH, Rahman NA, et al. Prevalence and viral load of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) in pterygia in multi-ethnic patients in the Malay Peninsula. Acta Ophthalmol 2014;92(7):e569-e579.
  87. Woods M, Chow S, Heng B, et al. Detecting human papillomavirus in ocular surface diseases. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013;54(13):8069-8078.
  88. Anguria P, Kitinya J, Ntuli S, Carmichael T. The role of heredity in pterygium development. Int J Ophthalmol 2014; 7(3):563-573.
  89. Hall JG, Reed SD, Rosenbaum KN, et al. Limb pterygium syndromes: a review and report of eleven patients. Am J Med Genet 1982;12(4):377-409.
  90. Zhang JD. An investigation of aetiology and heredity of pterygium: report of 11 cases in a family. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1987;65(4):413-416.
  91. Chowers I, Pe'er J, Zamir E, et al. Proliferative activity and p53 expression in primary and recurrent pterygia. Ophthalmology 2001;108(5):985-988.
  92. Kase S, Takahashi S, Sato I, et al. Expression of p27(KIP1) and cyclin D1, and cell proliferation in human pterygium. Br J Ophthalmol 2007;91(7):958-961.
  93. Kim KW, Park SH, Wee SW, Kim JC. Overexpression of angiogenin in pterygium body fibroblasts and its association with proliferative potency. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013;54(9):6355-6362.
  94. Liu S, Young SM, Varisco BM. Dynamic expression of chymotrypsin-like elastase 1 over the course of murine lung development. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2014;306(12):L1104-L1116.
  95. Poteca T, Poteca A, Sajin M, Comanescu M. Biological prognostic parameters in gastric carcinomas. Chirurgia (Bucur) 2014;109(3):347-354.
  96. Song D, Cui M, Zhao G, et al. Pathway-based analysis of breast cancer. Am J Transl Res 2014;6(3):302-311.
  97. Folkman J. Is tissue mass regulated by vascular endothelial cells? Prostate as the first evidence. Endocrinology 1998;139(2):441-442.
  98. Acs G, Acs P, Beckwith SM, et al. Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor expression in human cancer. Cancer Res 2001;61(9):3561-3565.
  99. Lester RD, Jo M, Campana WM, Gonias SL. Erythropoietin promotes MCF-7 breast cancer cell migration by an ERK/mitogen-activated protein kinasedependent pathway and is primarily responsible for the increase in migration observed in hypoxia. J Biol Chem 2005;280(47):39273-39277.
  100. Kramer E, Herman O, Frand J, et al. Ki67 as a biologic marker of basal cell carcinoma: a retrospective study. Isr Med Assoc J 2014;16(4):229-232.
  101. Barrett TL, Smith KJ, Hodge JJ, et al. Immunohistochemical nuclear staining for p53, PCNA, and Ki-67 in different histologic variants of basal cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997;37(3 Pt 1):430-437.
  102. Chen KH, Hsu WM. Intraoperative ethanol treatment as an adjuvant therapy of pterygium excision. Int J Biomed Sci 2006;2(4):414-421.
  103. Tong L, Lan W, Lim RR, Chaurasia SS. S100A proteins as molecular targets in the ocular surface inflammatory diseases. Ocul Surf 2014;12(1):23-31.
  104. Riau AK, Wong TT, Beuerman RW, Tong L. Calciumbinding S100 protein expression in pterygium. Mol Vis 2009;15:335-342.
  105. Jaworski CJ, Aryankalayil-John M, Campos MM, et al. Expression analysis of human pterygium shows a predominance of conjunctival and limbal markers and genes associated with cell migration. Mol Vis 2009;15: 2421-2434.
  106. Hou A, Lan W, Law KP, et al. Evaluation of global differential gene and protein expression in primary Pterygium: S100A8 and S100A9 as possible drivers of a signaling network. PLoS One 2014;9(5):e97402.
  107. Zhou L, Beuerman RW, Ang LP, et al. Elevation of human alpha-defensins and S100 calcium-binding proteins A8 and A9 in tear fluid of patients with pterygium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50(5):2077-2086.
  108. Roth J, Burwinkel F, van den Bos C, et al. MRP8 and MRP14, S-100-like proteins associated with myeloid differentiation, are translocated to plasma membrane and intermediate filaments in a calcium-dependent manner. Blood 1993;82(6):1875- 1883.
  109. Dushku N, Hatcher SL, Albert DM, Reid TW. p53 expression and relation to human papillomavirus infection in pingueculae, pterygia, and limbal tumors. Arch Ophthalmol 1999;117(12):1593-1599.
  110. Reisman D, McFadden JW, Lu G. Loss of heterozygosity and p53 expression in Pterygium. Cancer Lett 2004; 206(1):77-83.
  111. Ueda Y, Kanazawa S, Kitaoka T, et al. Immunohistochemical study of p53, p21 and PCNA in pterygium. Acta Histochem 2001;103(2):159-165.
  112. Schneider BG, John-Aryankalayil M, Rowsey JJ, et al. Accumulation of p53 protein in pterygia is not accompanied by TP53 gene mutation. Exp Eye Res 2006; 82(1):91-98.
  113. Tsai YY, Cheng YW, Lee H, et al. P53 gene mutation spectrum and the relationship between gene mutation and protein levels in pterygium. Mol Vis 2005;11:50-55.
  114. Sakoonwatanyoo P, Tan DT, Smith DR. Expression of p63 in pterygium and normal conjunctiva. Cornea 2004; 23(1):67-70.
  115. Detorakis ET, Zafiropoulos A, Arvanitis DA, Spandidos DA. Detection of point mutations at codon 12 of KI-ras in ophthalmic pterygia. Eye (Lond) 2005;19(2):210- 214.
  116. Xu K, Tao T, Jie J, et al. Increased importin 13 activity is associated with the pathogenesis of pterygium. Mol Vis 2013;19:604-613.
  117. Shimmura S, Ishioka M, Hanada K, et al. Telomerase activity and p53 expression in pterygia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000;41(6):1364-1369.
  118. Detorakis ET, Sourvinos G, Tsamparlakis J, Spandidos DA. Evaluation of loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability in human pterygium: clinical correlations. Br J Ophthalmol 1998;82(11):1324-1328.
  119. Kria L, Ohira A, Amemiya T. Immunohistochemical localization of basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the pterygium. Acta Histochem 1996;98(2):195- 201.
  120. Tong L, Li J, Chew J, et al. Phospholipase D in the human ocular surface and in pterygium. Cornea 2008; 27(6):693-698.
  121. Barba-Gallardo LF, Ventura-Juarez J, Kershenobich Stalnikowitz D, et al. Overexpression of human cystatin C in pterygium versus healthy conjunctiva. BMC Ophthalmol 2013;13:6.
  122. Siak JJ, Ng SL, Seet LF, et al. The nuclear-factor kappaB pathway is activated in pterygium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011;52(1):230-236.
  123. Pinkerton OD, Hokama Y, Shigemura LA. Immunologic basis for the pathogenesis of pterygium. Am J Ophthalmol 1984;98(2):225-228.
  124. Julien S, Puig I, Caretti E, et al. Activation of NF-kappaB by Akt upregulates snail expression and induces epithelium mesenchyme transition. Oncogene 2007; 26(53):7445-7456.
  125. Pahl HL. Activators and target genes of Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factors. Oncogene 1999;18(49):6853-6866.
  126. Nolan TM, Di Girolamo N, Coroneo MT, Wakefield D. Proliferative effects of heparinbinding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor on pterygium epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004;45(1):110-113.
  127. Jin J, Guan M, Sima J, et al. Decreased pigment epithelium-derived factor and increased vascular endothelial growth factor levels in pterygia. Cornea 2003; 22(5):473-477.
  128. Park CY, Choi JS, Lee SJ, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2- expressing macrophages in human pterygium co-express vascular endothelial growth factor. Mol Vis 2011;17: 3468-3480.
  129. Solomon A, Grueterich M, Li DQ, et al. Overexpression of Insulin-like growth factorbinding protein-2 in pterygium body fibroblasts. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003; 44(2):573-580.
  130. Nakagami T, Watanabe I, Murakami A, et al. Expression of stem cell factor in pterygium. Jpn J Ophthalmol 2000; 44(3):193-197.
  131. van Setten G, Aspiotis M, Blalock TD, et al. Connective tissue growth factor in pterygium: simultaneous presence with vascular endothelial growth factor: possible contributing factor to conjunctival scarring. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2003;241(2):135-139.
  132. Bradley JC, Yang W, Bradley RH, et al. The science of pterygia. Br J Ophthalmol 2010;94(7):815-820.
  133. Kim KW, Park SH, Lee SH, Kim JC. Upregulated stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF- 1) expression and its interaction with CXCR4 contribute to the pathogenesis of severe pterygia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013;54(12):7198-7206.
  134. Stamenkovic I. Extracellular matrix remodelling: the role of matrix metalloproteinases. J Pathol 2003;200(4):448-464.
  135. Yang SF, Lin CY, Yang PY, et al. Increased expression of gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in pterygia and pterygium fibroblasts with disease progression and activation of protein kinase C. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009; 50(10):4588-4596.
  136. Di Girolamo N, Coroneo MT, Wakefield D. Active matrilysin (MMP-7) in human pterygia: potential role in angiogenesis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2001; 42(9):1963-1968.
  137. Di Girolamo N, Wakefield D, Coroneo MT. Differential expression of matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors at the advancing pterygium head. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000;41(13):4142-4149.
  138. Hanahan D, Folkman J. Patterns and emerging mechanisms of the angiogenic switch during tumorigenesis. Cell 1996;86(3):353-364.
  139. Chui J, Di Girolamo N, Coroneo MT, Wakefield D. The role of substance P in the pathogenesis of pterygia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007;48(10):4482-4489.
  140. Kuwano M, Fukushi J, Okamoto M, et al. Angiogenesis factors. Intern Med 2001;40(7):565-572.
  141. Roberts DD. Regulation of tumor growth and metastasis by thrombospondin-1. Faseb J 1996;10(10):1183-1191.
  142. Umeda N, Ozaki H, Hayashi H, Oshima K. Expression of ephrinB2 and its receptors on fibroproliferative membranes in ocular angiogenic diseases. Am J Ophthalmol 2004;138(2):270-279.
  143. Xue C, Huang Z, Wang J, et al. EphrinB2 and EphB4 expression in pterygia: new insights and preliminary results. Can J Ophthalmol 2009;44(2):185-188.
  144. Hos D, Regenfuss B, Bock F, et al. Blockade of insulin receptor substrate-1 inhibits corneal lymphangiogenesis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011;52(8):5778-5785.
  145. Bachmann B, Taylor RS, Cursiefen C. Corneal neovascularization as a risk factor for graft failure and rejection after keratoplasty: an evidence-based meta-analysis. Ophthalmology 2010;117(7):1300-1305.e1307.
  146. Cursiefen C, Chen L, Dana MR, Streilein JW. Corneal lymphangiogenesis: evidence, mechanisms, and implications for corneal transplant immunology. Cornea 2003; 22(3):273-281.
  147. Golu T, Mogoanta L, Streba CT, et al. Pterygium: histological and immunohistochemical aspects. Rom J Morphol Embryol 2011;52(1):153-158.
  148. Zeisberg M, Kalluri R. The role of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in renal fibrosis. J Mol Med (Berl) 2004; 82(3):175-181.
  149. Larue L, Bellacosa A. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in development and cancer: role of phosphatidylinositol 30 kinase/AKT pathways. Oncogene 2005; 24(50):7443-7454.
  150. Korpal M, Lee ES, Hu G, Kang Y. The miR-200 family inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer cell migration by direct targeting of E-cadherin transcriptional repressors ZEB1 and ZEB2. J Biol Chem 2008; 283(22):14910-14914.
  151. Sanchez-Thorin JC, Rocha G, Yelin JB. Meta-analysis on the recurrence rates after bare sclera resection with and without mitomycin C use and conjunctival autograft placement in surgery for primary pterygium. Br J Ophthalmol 1998;82(6):661-665.
  152. Yang Y, Pi M, Xu F. Observation of long-term efficacy of corneal limbal conjunctival autografts in microscopy treatments of pterygium. Eye Sci 2013;28(2):73-78.
  153. Salagar KM, Biradar KG. Conjunctival autograft in primary and recurrent pterygium: a study. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7(12):2825-2827.
  154. Kocamis O, Bilgec M. Evaluation of the recurrence rate for pterygium treated with conjunctival autograft. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2014;252(5):817-820.
  155. Cohen RA, McDonald MB. Fixation of conjunctival autografts with an organic tissue adhesive. Arch Ophthalmol 1993;111(9):1167-1168.
  156. Cagatay HH, Gokce G, Ekinci M, et al. Long-term comparison of fibrin tissue glue and vicryl suture in conjunctival autografting for pterygium surgery. Postgrad Med 2014;126(1):97-103.
  157. Vichare N, Choudhary T, Arora P. A comparison between fibrin sealant and sutures for attaching conjunctival autograft after pterygium excision. Med J Armed Forces India 2013;69(2):151-155.
  158. Huerva V, March A, Martinez-Alonso M, et al. Pterygium surgery by means of conjunctival autograft: long term follow-up. Arq Bras Oftalmol 2012;75(4):251-
  159. 160. Thatte S. Amniotic membrane transplantation: an option for ocular surface disorders. Oman J Ophthalmol 2011; 4(2):67-72.
  160. Arain MA, Yaqub MA, Ameen SS, et al. Amniotic membrane transplantation in primary pterygium compared with bare sclera technique. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2012;22(7):440-443.
  161. Moreno-Lopez R. Estudio comparativo entre escision de pterigion primario con autoinjerto conjuntival, membrana amniotica y cierre primario [Comparative study between primary pterygium excision using conjunctival autograft, amniotic membrane, and primary closure]. Rev Mex Oftalmol 2004;78:291-297.
  162. Liang W, Li R, Deng X. Comparison of the efficacy of pterygium resection combined with conjunctival autograft versus pterygium resection combined with amniotic membrane transplantation. Eye Sci 2012;27(2):102-105.
  163. Taylan Sekeroglu H, Erdem E, Dogan NC, et al. Sutureless amniotic membrane transplantation combined with narrow-strip conjunctival autograft for pterygium. Int Ophthalmol 2011;31(6):433-438.
  164. Li M, Zhu M, Yu Y, et al. Comparison of conjunctival autograft transplantation and amniotic membrane transplantation for pterygium: a meta-analysis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2012;250(3):375-381.
  165. Kheirkhah A, Nazari R, Nikdel M, et al. Postoperative conjunctival inflammation after pterygium surgery with amniotic membrane transplantation versus conjunctival autograft. Am J Ophthalmol 2011;152(5):733-738.
  166. Ibañez-Hernandez M, Ramos-Espinoza K. Cirugýa de pterigion: membrana amnio'tica vs autoinjerto de conjuntiva [Pterygium surgery: amniotic membrane vs conjunctival autograft]. Rev Mex Oftalmol 2006; 80(1):90-11.
  167. Kim JH, Chun YS, Lee SH, et al. Ocular surface reconstruction with autologous nasal mucosa in cicatricial ocular surface disease. Am J Ophthalmol 2010;149(1):45-53.
  168. Kim KW, Kim JC, Moon JH, et al. Management of complicated multirecurrent pterygia using multimicroporous expanded polytetrafluoroethylene. Br J Ophthalmol 2013;97(6):694-700.
  169. Netto MV, Mohan RR, Sinha S, et al. Effect of prophylactic and therapeutic mitomycin C on corneal apoptosis, cellular proliferation, haze, and long-term keratocyte density in rabbits. J Refract Surg 2006;22(6):562-574.
  170. Katircioglu YA, Altiparmak U, Engur Goktas S, et al. Comparison of two techniques for the treatment of recurrent pterygium: amniotic membrane vs conjunctival autograft combined with mitomycin C. Semin Ophthalmol. 2014; 1-7. [Epub ahead of print] doi:10.3109/08820538. 2013.874468.
  171. De La Luz-Osnaya J, Dewit-Carter G, Sandra-Sarmina J. Frecuencia de recidiva en la reseccio'n quiru'rgica de pterigio'n con aplicacio'n to'pica de mitomicina C vs betaterapia, utilizando la te'cnica de esclero'tica desnuda [Frequency of pterygium recurrence after surgical resection with topical mitomycin C vs beta therapy, using bare sclera technique]. Rev Mex Oftalmol 2000;74(2):59-62.
  172. Casanueva-Cabeza H, Gonza'lez-Sotero J, Alberro Herna'ndez M, Rojas-A' lvarez E. Tendencias actuales del uso de Mitomicina C en el tratamiento del pterigio'n [Current tendencies in the use of mitomycin C for pterygium treatment]. Rev Mex Oftalmol 2009; 83(6):377-380.
  173. Villarreal Muraira A, Noriega Ayala A, Rodrý'guez Garcý'a A. Resultados de la aplicacio'n de mitomicina-C transoperatoria versus postoperatoriaen cirugý'a de pterigio'n [Results of the transoperative application of mitomycin C in pterygium treatment]. Rev Mex Oftalmol 2009;83(6):385-389.
  174. Rubinfeld RS, Pfister RR, Stein RM, et al. Serious complications of topical mitomycin-C after pterygium surgery. Ophthalmology 1992;99(11):1647-1654.
  175. Raiskup F, Solomon A, Landau D, et al. Mitomycin C for pterygium: long term evaluation. Br J Ophthalmol 2004; 88(11):1425-1428.
  176. Kirwan JF, Constable PH, Murdoch IE, Khaw PT. Beta irradiation: new uses for an old treatment: a review. Eye (Lond) 2003;17(2):207-215.
  177. Murube J. Pterygium: its treatment with beta therapy. Ocul Surf 2009;7(1):3-9.
  178. Qin XJ, Chen HM, Guo L, Guo YY. Low-dose strontium- 90 irradiation is effective in preventing the recurrence of pterygia: a ten-year study. PLoS One 2012;7(8):e43500.
  179. Ali AM, Thariat J, Bensadoun RJ, et al. The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of pterygium: a review of the literature including more than 6000 treated lesions. Cancer Radiother 2011;15(2):140-147.
  180. Viani GA, Fonseca EC, De Fendi LI, Rocha EM. Conjunctival autograft alone or combined with adjuvant beta-radiation? A randomized clinical trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012;82(3):e507-e511.
  181. Boyd S, Boyd B. New Trends in Ophthalmology: Medical and Surgical Management. Panama: Jaypee-Highlights Medical Publishers, 2013.
  182. Said DG, Faraj LA, Elalfy MS, et al. Intra-lesional 5 fluorouracil for the management of recurrent pterygium. Eye (Lond) 2013;27(10):1123-1129.
  183. Kareem AA, Farhood QK, Alhammami HA. The use of antimetabolites as adjunctive therapy in the surgical treatment of pterygium. Clin Ophthalmol 2012;6: 1849- 1854.
  184. Helena MC, Filatov VV, Johnston WT, et al. Effects of 50% ethanol and mechanical epithelial debridement on corneal structure before and after excimer photorefractive keratectomy. Cornea 1997;16(5):571-579.
  185. Lee HK, Lee KS, Kim JK, et al. Epithelial healing and clinical outcomes in excimer laser photorefractive surgery following three epithelial removal techniques: mechanical, alcohol, and excimer laser. Am J Ophthalmol 2005;139(1):56-63.
  186. Tsumi E, Levy J, Pitchkhadze A, et al. New approach for pterygium removal using 20 % ethanol. Int Ophthalmol 2012;32(5):443-448.
  187. Ranieri G, Patruno R, Ruggieri E, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a target of bevacizumab in cancer: from the biology to the clinic. Curr Med Chem 2006; 13(16):1845-1857.
  188. Stival LR, Lago AM, Figueiredo MN, et al. Efficacy and safety of subconjunctival bevacizumab for recurrent pterygium. Arq Bras Oftalmol 2014;77(1):4-7.
  189. Karalezli A, Kucukerdonmez C, Akova YA, Koktekir BE. Does topical bevacizumab prevent postoperative recurrence after pterygium surgery with conjunctival autografting? Int J Ophthalmol 2014;7(3):512-516.
  190. Razeghinejad MR, Banifatemi M. Subconjunctival bevacizumab for primary pterygium excision: a randomized clinical trial. J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2014; 9(1):22-30.
  191. Bayar SA, Kucukerdonmez C, Oner O, Akova YA. Subconjunctival bevacizumab in the impending recurrent pterygia. Int Ophthalmol 2014;34(3):541-547.
  192. Sapadin AN, Fleischmajer R. Tetracyclines: nonantibiotic properties and their clinical implications. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006;54(2):258-265.
  193. Duivenvoorden WC, Hirte HW, Singh G. Use of tetracycline as an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase activity secreted by human bone-metastasizing cancer cells. Invasion Metastasis 1997;17(6):312-322.
  194. Hidalgo M, Eckhardt SG. Development of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors in cancer therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001;93(3):178-193.
  195. Cox CA, Amaral J, Salloum R, et al. Doxycycline's effect on ocular angiogenesis: an in v
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.