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VOLUME 44 , ISSUE 3ENG ( Jun-2016, 2016 ) > List of Articles

Updates in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

Michal Schaap-Fogler, Rita Ehrlich

Citation Information : Schaap-Fogler M, Ehrlich R. Updates in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. 2016; 44 (3ENG):9-20.

DOI: 10.5005/highlights-44-3-9

Published Online: 29-01-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2016; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is considered a benign, self-limiting disease. However, as many as third of the patients have recurrent episodes or chronic disease that may cause significant functional impairment. New diagnostic tools and new treatment modalities are emerging in order to improve the functional outcomes of these patients. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) has the ability to image individual layers of the retina and choroid. SD-OCT images in CSCR patients have demonstrated increased subfoveal thickness measurements, high reflective deposits in areas of subretinal precipitates and changes in the Retinal pigment epithelium layers of the asymptomatic eyes of patients with supposedly unilateral CSCR. A positive correlation was found between the level of distribution to the layer of inner segment/outer segment junction of the photoreceptors and the visual impairment. Fundus autofluoresence images show a wide variety during different stages of the disease in CSCR patients. Minimal abnormalities during the early stages are followed by hyperautofluoresence in the detached area in later stages, often in a manner of inferior gravitation and at the borders of the detachments. The chronic phase is characterized by varying degrees of atrophy and areas of decreased autofluorescence surrounding areas of chronic leaks. These changes help differentiate an active disease from an inactive state. Multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) has the ability to demonstrate a persistent depression despite the resolution of subretinal detachments. It is therefore being investigated as a follow up tool for patients with chronic CSCR. An excellent correlation was found between changes in mfERG and visual function. Macular microperimetry, measuring retinal sensitivity within the central visual field, is intended to compensate for the underestimation of visual impairment in patients with macular diseases. Reduced retinal sensitivity was found in areas of previous subretinal fluids in CSCR patients. The device can also serve as a follow up tool in these patients. Regarding treatment in CSCR patients, focal argon laser photocoagulation treatment may be applied to small extrafoveal leaks. However, the main purpose of this treatment is to shorten disease duration, with no advantage over observation regarding final visual outcome, rate of progression to chronic CSCR or number of recurrences. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin has been shown to completely resolve serous detachment in 60%-80% of patients and to have a partial affect in the remaining patients. Reduced-fluence treatment is replacing fullfluence therapy in order to minimize side effects with no accompanying reduced effectiveness. Regarding newer treatment modalities, intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents have a limited effect in patients with CSCR. Recent reports have not demonstrated an advantage for this treatment in regards to anatomic and functional outcome. Micropulse diode laser was not proven to be safer or more effective than argon laser or PDT. In conclusion, imaging is evolving rapidly while the clinical implications of these new imaging modalities are less clear. Large randomized trials investigating different treatment modalities are still lacking.


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